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  • Nazmi Gultekin
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    Nazmi Gultekin
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    in reply to: Developing new drug #2941

    Laboratory and Epidemiology CommunicationScallop shell powder must be on the agenda as a new prodrug for virus attenuation and eradication in SARS-COV-2
    Laboratory and Epidemiology Communication

    Scallop shell powder must be on the agenda as a new prodrug for virus attenuation and eradication in SARS-COV-2

    Nazmi Gültekin1, Emine Kucukates2

    1Corresponding author:
    Prof. Dr. Nazmi Gultekin
    Department of Cardiology,
    Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Cardiology Institute,
    Istanbul, TURKEY
    E-mail: nngultekin@yahoo.com
    Tel: +902124592000/2951
    Tel Mobil: +90 5555170606
    Fax: +90 2124592069
    Emine Kucukates²
    2.Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Cardiology Institute. Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey
    Haseki, Istanbul, Turkey
    E-mail: eates2002@yahoo.com
    Word count:567
    Keywords; Scallop shell powder* SARS-COV-2* new prodrug* vaccination and eradication*Environmental Medicine.

    Currently, our world is facing an outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and tremendous efforts are being made to develop drugs to treat and vaccines to prevent the disease. At present, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines for COVID-19.

    Scallop shells are waste products of scallop harvesting in the district of Korea and Japan. Large numbers of shells are heaped near the seaside, creating problems such as offensive odors and soil pollution from heavy metals contained in the viscera. Therefore, new applications for scallop shells need to be developed. Scallop shells contain calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as the main component when scallop shells are heated to >700⁰C is converted to calcium oxide (CaO). Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process − the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) – can be further ground into nano-sized particles, with an average diameter of 500 nm, Heated scallop shell powder (HSSP) exhibits strong antimicrobial activity to the vegetative bacteria, spores, and fungi. CaO has been utilized mainly as an acidity regular and food additive(1,2).
    Also, there was demonstrated antiviral activity of scallop-shell powder and its long life of antiviral activity against avian influenza virus (AIV) and goose parvovirus (GPV). Scallop-shell powder could reduce viral titers of AIV and GPV more than 10,000 times to undetectable levels within 3 minutes(2). Also, nano-sized scallop shell powder(CaO-Nano solution) could inactivate the avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. (3).
    The heated scallop shell was quite effective against these resistant bacteria. In conclusion, preventing nosocomial infection in the ICU is a very important effective disinfection and reduces infection risk in this area. It is suggested that heated scallop shell powder can be used as a bio-disinfectant and therapeutic due to good antibacterial and antiviral activity. Therefore, further research in this area is the need for the effective use of scallop shells in nosocomial infections(1,2).
    We thought that considered to possess other antimicrobial mechanisms in additon to alkalinity. Especially nano-sized heated SSP can be used as a bio-disinfectant and therapeutic due to good antibacterial and antiviral activity(1-3), In Japan, SSP has licensed as a food additive, which means if domestic animals eat SSP by accident, it will be safe.
    According to our opinion; especially nano-sized heated SSP needs to be tested via in vitro and molecular studies in SARS-COV-2; however, the situation our world is facing is urgent. Various therapies that may have the slightest chance to rescue COVID-19 patients with respiratory insufficiency are being tried without precise clinical proof. Scientists from all over the world are united in efforts to develop a specific vaccine for COVID-19. We think that, until the development of a specific vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, nano-sized heated SSP can be beneficial virus attenuation for vaccine preparation and developing new prodrugs to prevent further fatalities.

    In conclusion, it must be on the agenda as a new prodrug and we recommend in virus attenuation for vaccine preparation in SARS-CoV-2 and for its eradication due to its similarity to other RNA viruses above mentioned. Also, nano-sized HSSP increases the shelf life of wear protective equipment ( PPEs) and minimizes virus contamination.

    Conflict of interest: None to declare.
    References

    1.Gultekin N, Kucukates E. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Scallop Shell Powder Against Staphylococci Species and Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated From Patients Intensive Care Units.
    ( See:DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2019.13.002445).
    2. Tsujimura M, Thammakarn C, Yamada Y, Satoh K, Hasegawa T, Ruenphet S, Kazuaki Takehara K.
    Antiviral Activity of Scallop-Shell Powder against Avian Influenza Virus and Goose Parvovirus. Trans. Mat. Res. Soc. Japan (2012): 37[4] 567-570.
    3. Thammakarn C1, Satoh K, Suguro A, Hakim H, Ruenphet S, Takehara K. Inactivation of avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus using a solution of nano-sized scallop shell powder. J Vet Med Sci. 2014 Sep; 76(9): 1277–1280.

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